renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation

Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power, can play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. These energy sources do not rely on fossil fuels, which are a major source of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases when burned. Instead, renewable energy sources harness the natural power of the sun, wind, and water to generate electricity.

Using renewable energy can help reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, which are a finite resource and contribute significantly to global warming. By transitioning to renewable energy, we can reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, slow the rate of climate change, and protect the planet for future generations.

There are many ways to incorporate renewable energy into our lives, including using solar panels to generate electricity, using wind turbines to generate electricity, and using hydroelectric power to generate electricity. These technologies are becoming more affordable and accessible, making it easier for individuals and businesses to switch to renewable energy sources.

In addition to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy can also have other benefits. For example, it can create jobs, improve air quality, and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of energy. As such, transitioning to renewable energy is an important step we can take to address climate change and protect the planet.

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Cons of wind power

Despite the many advantages of wind, there are some disadvantages or challenges that can arise when relying on wind energy, such as:
– Unreliable source : in general, it is not possible to be sure of the wind blowing reliably, therefore, if it relies on wind only to generate electricity, which leads to a lack of electricity on days when the wind does not blow, and on the other hand, severe storms, high winds or lightning damage wind turbines.
– Threat to wildlife : turbines and their feathers and edges can be unsafe for wildlife, especially for birds that are in the same area, and there is no effective and reliable way to prevent such a threat.
– Noise and visual pollution : wind turbines emit a sound ranging from 50 to 60 decibels, therefore, if the turbine is next to the house, it will make an annoying noise, and on the other hand, some consider that The Shape of turbines, especially next to houses, is ugly and gives an unloved appearance to the place.
– Cost and maintenance : although wind energy is lower in cost than other energy sources, it remains expensive when starting a turbine construction project, and its maintenance is expensive.
– Safety: turbines can threaten the safety of workers in the field, especially during times of severe storms and high winds, which cause damage or problems in the turbine blades, increasing the likelihood of their occurrence, which threatens the safety of workers, causing them lifelong disability or causing their death.
– Limitation : the harnessing of wind energy is limited to certain places only, which are places where the wind speed is high, and this is mostly in remote places away from cities.

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The pros of wind energy

Wind is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world, so it offers many advantages and pros, such as:
Low cost wind energy is suitable in terms of cost, as it is one of the lowest-priced energy sources available, as the cost of wind energy is equivalent to 1 to 2 cents per kilowatt / hour, and wind farms sell it at a fixed price for a long period of time, it can set a fixed price for a period of 20 or 30 years, for example, unlike the price change that can occur on conventional energy sources.
Job creation the wind energy sector creates many jobs, for example, in the United States, this sector employs more than 300,000 workers, the job of a wind turbine technician there has become one of the fastest growing jobs, and statistical reports indicate that by 2050 wind energy will provide more than 900,000 jobs in the United States. In the United States, wind energy projects represent annual investments of more than 10 billion dollars in the US economy.
A source of clean fuel wind energy is not like power plants that rely on burning fossil fuels; like coal or natural gas, which produces harmful particles, substances and gases such as; nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide, which causes many health problems and economic damage. Wind energy, on the contrary, does not cause pollution and does not produce atmospheric emissions that cause acid rain, gases, smog that increase global warming.
In the last ten years in the United States, wind power capacity has grown by 15%, so wind has become the largest source of renewable energy there.
Wind is classified as a form of solar energy, as wind is produced due to the sun raising the temperature in the atmosphere, in addition to the rotation of the Earth and the unevenness of its surface, which means that as long as the sun shines, the wind will blow, and therefore it is sustainable and renewable.

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Types of wind turbines

Horizontal turbines, vertical turbines, wind turbines can be built both on land and on large bodies of water such as oceans and lakes. Factors on which wind energy depends there are three main factors on which wind energy depends and affects the output and generation of energy from it, namely:
– Wind speed: wind speed determines the amount of electricity that a turbine can generate, in the sense that higher speeds of wind allow generating more energy, because strong winds help the turbine blades to rotate faster, and faster rotation generates more mechanical and electrical energy from the generator.
– Air density: the power generation process also depends on the air density in the area, and the air density is affected by altitude, pressure and temperature, as dense air exerts greater pressure on the turbines, which leads to higher energy production.
– Blades size: turbines the larger the turbine blades, the larger the size, allows the turbine to capture more wind energy, move more air through the rotors, and this leads to the production of more energy, of course.

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Definition of wind energy and the method of generating electricity from it

Wind energy is a form of renewable energy sources, in which turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy, and this energy is used to provide the necessary power needed by many different fields; such as industry, agriculture and others.
Electricity is generated from wind energy using a turbine, the wind moves the Blades of a fan-like turbine, which causes its rotation, which, in turn, turns on the generator responsible for generating mechanical and electrical energy. The turbine converts wind energy into electrical energy by using the aerodynamic force generated by the rotating blades, which works with the same idea as the wings of an airplane or a fan, when the wind flows and reaches the vane, the air pressure decreases on one side of this vane, and this difference in pressure creates lifting and pulling forces. The lifting force is stronger than the pulling force, and this leads to the rotation of the vane, which is connected to the generator either directly by a turbine or indirectly through a shaft and gearbox, and this leads to the operation of the generator that generates electricity.

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Obstacles to the use of solar energy

There are many reasons for switching to the option of using renewable energy sources as an alternative to traditional sources, but there are some obstacles that do not enable the world to rely on them mainly:

Initial construction cost: The cost of building a solar energy system depends on the location, number of panels required, installation requirements, labor charges, etc., and this cost is high; Thus, some families cannot afford it without resorting to loans.

Night use: solar energy systems need the sun to operate, so at night these systems cannot generate electricity, and the person needs to rely on other sources to obtain energy. It is worth noting that some solar panel systems contain backup batteries, but they are optional. Comes with all systems.

The need for space: Solar panels need a space to install them, and the greater the volume of consumption required, the greater the space required to install the solar energy system.

 Location: The intensity and availability of the sun varies from place to place. In some parts of the world, the sun does not appear for several days in the winter season. Which leads to exposure to the problem of inability to supply electricity to those who depend on solar energy, and the solar eclipse also affects solar energy generators.

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Benefits of solar energy the individual

The use of solar energy at the individual level brings many benefits:
A source of renewable energy: Solar energy is a renewable energy source. Where it is available every day in various parts of the world, and solar energy does not run out unlike some other energy sources, and man can benefit from solar energy for at least 5 billion years; That is, until the end of the remaining life of the sun, as determined by scientists.
A way to reduce energy bills: A person can replace the energy sources he uses with solar energy generated by the solar system that he uses, so the value of savings in energy bills will depend on the amount of electricity and heating used, in addition to the size of the existing solar system. The larger its size, the less the need to use energy sources. other and reduce the price of the incurred bills.

Various applications: Solar energy is used in many applications in addition to generating electricity and heat. It can also be used to distill water in areas that lack clean water, as well as to operate satellites in space.
Low maintenance costs: Solar energy systems are considered among the systems that do not require much maintenance, and it is sufficient to clean them several times a year by the same person or specialized cleaning companies.

Geothermal energy

Definition of solar energy : Photovoltaic systems

Definition of solar energy

Solar energy is defined as the energy resulting from converting sunlight into electricity through the use of photovoltaic solar cells. It is one of the most important renewable energy sources, and the fastest growing among them. As it promises a promising future in providing energy for various uses. Every site on Earth receives a quantity of sunlight throughout the year, but the amount of solar radiation that one spot receives varies from one place to another on the surface of the Earth, and that amount is called solar radiation, which is also known as photoelectric radiation. Where it is emitted from the sun in the form of light that solar energy technologies capture, and convert it into useful forms of energy.

 

Photovoltaic systems

when solar panels are exposed to sunlight, these cells absorb energy from sunlight, and this energy generates electric charges that move in response to an electric field internal in the cells which leads to the flow of electricity. This system consists of solar cells made of semiconductor materials, and when these materials are exposed to sunlight, the solar energy stimulates the electrons in the atoms of these The process of converting sunlight (photons) into electricity (voltage) is called the photoelectric effect. Concentrated solar energy systems: Solar energy systems depend on the use of mirrors and lenses to focus a large amount of sunlight on a small area, then the solar energy is converted into heat, and the concentrated solar energy system consists of 3 main units.

Solar field: The solar field converts solar energy into thermal energy.

Heat tank: It stores thermal energy by using molten salt as a heat storage medium.

Energy production unit: Electricity is generated in this unit using steam turbines that operate on steam generated from solar energy.

Solar heating systems Solar heating systems technologies use thermal energy from the sun to provide hot water and heating for residential, commercial and industrial facilities. These systems provide an alternative to using electricity or natural gas. These systems consist of three main elements: the main collector, insulated pipes, And a hot water tank, and these systems can include optional tools, such as: electronic control units, and a freezing protection system when needed, especially in areas with cold climates.These systems provide adequate internal temperature in two ways:

Active solar heating method: the appropriate heat is provided in this way by circulating hot water or gas by means of a pump or fan.

Passive solar heating method: This method allows heat to circulate inside buildings in a natural way without the use of external energy